Origin and fate of phosphorus in the Seine watershed (France) : Agricultural and hydrographic P budgets

Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2007
AuthorsNémery, J, Garnier, J
Start Page271
Date Published2007
Mots-clésPhosphorus dynamics, Seine Estuary, Turbidity maximum zone

During the 2001–2002 hydrological cycle, 8,000 tons P year-1 (44% as particulate phosphorus) originating from the Seine basin entered the Seine estuary. P content in suspended sediments (SS) is 2.9 g P kg-1 (80% as inorganic form) at Poses (the upstream limit of the Seine estuary). During the transfer from Poses to Caudebec (the limit of saline water intrusion), Particulate Inorganic Phosphorus (PIP) in SS decreases by 40% whereas Particulate Organic Phosphorus (POP) remains stable. This decrease is explained as the result of (i) a dilution by SS poorer in P, originating from storage zones (mudflats) within the estuary, and (ii) a loss of P by sedimentation, especially in the Rouen harbour where 15% to 20% of SS are yearly trapped and extracted. Downstream, in the turbidity maximum of the estuary, P content in SS is twice as low as at Poses (1.5 g P kg-1, 70% as inorganic form). PIP content is fairly homogeneous both vertically and throughout an annual survey. On the other hand, POP varies by season. Higher POP content is observed during vernal period with phytoplankton accumulation. In a salinity gradient from 0 to 30 (PSS78), PIP content further decreases by 30%. POP does not vary much in this gradient, leading to the assumption that PIP is submitted to desorption in response to the dilution by marine waters (poor in orthophosphates). Using 32P isotopic method, we establish a mathematical formulation of P exchangeable between the suspended solid and water phases of the Seine estuary. Particulate P in the turbidity maximum zone is shown to represent a possible source of dissolved P, available for algal growth in the Seine Bight. Instead of playing a role of nutrient retention, the turbidity maximum zone of the Seine estuary could favour coastal eutrophication.