Alkylphenolic compounds and bisphenol A contamination within a heavily urbanized area: case study of Paris.

Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2013
AuthorsCladière, M, Gasperi, J, Lorgeoux, C, Bonhomme, C, Rocher, V, Tassin, B
JournalEnvironmental science and pollution research international
Date Published2013 May
Mots-clésBenzhydryl Compounds, Chemical, Chromatography, Environmental Monitoring, High Pressure Liquid, Paris, Phenols, Reproducibility of Results, Seasons, Tandem Mass Spectrometry, Waste Water, Water Movements, Water Pollutants

This study evaluates the influence of a heavily urbanized area (Paris Metropolitan area), on receiving water contamination by both bisphenol A (BPA) and alkylphenol ethoxylate (APE) biodegradation product. The study began by investigating concentrations within urban sources. In addition to the more commonly studied wastewater treatment plant effluent, wet weather urban sources (including combined sewer overflows, urban runoff, and total atmospheric fallout) were considered. The initial results highlight a significant contamination of all urban sources (from a few nanograms per liter in atmospheric fallout to several micrograms per liter in the other sources) with clearly distinguishable distribution patterns. Secondly, concentration changes along the Seine River from upstream of the Paris Metropolitan area to downstream were investigated. While the concentrations of BPA and nonylphenoxy acetic acid (NP₁EC) increase substantially due to urban sources, the 4-nonylphenol concentrations remain homogeneous along the Seine. These results suggest a broad dissemination of 4-nonylphenol at the scale of the Seine River basin. Moreover, the relationship between pollutant concentrations and Seine River flow was assessed both upstream and downstream of the Paris conurbation. Consequently, a sharp decrease in dissolved NP1EC concentrations relative to Seine River flow underscores the influence of single-point urban pollution on Seine River contamination. Conversely, dissolved 4-nonylphenol concentrations serve to reinforce the hypothesis of its widespread presence at the Seine River basin scale.